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Hippocratic oath.The Hippocratic Oath is an oath taken by phycisians, from the ancient times. It is one of the most widely known of Greek medical texts. In its original form, it requires a new physician to swear, by the healing gods Apollo, Asclepius and others, to hold ethical standards. Hippocrates is often called the father of medicine in Western civilazation. The original oath was written in Greek,and is included in the Hippocratic corpus, a collection of around 60 early Ancient Greek medical works associated with the physician Hippocrates and his teachings. The entire Hippocratic Corpus was first printed as a unit in 1525 in latin. This edition was edited by Fabius Calvus in Rome. Another edition was next year, from the in Vevice (1526). A significant edition was that of Emile Littre, with French translation of the Hippocratic Corpus.
Hippocrates of Kos, was a Greek physician of the age of Pericles classical Greece, and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is referred to as the father of western medicine, in recognition of his contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. Hippocrates is credited with being the first person to believe that diseases were caused naturally, not because of superstition and gods.
Hippocrates was credited by the disciples of Pythagoras of allying philosophy and medicine. He separated the discipline of medicine from religion, believing and arguing that disease was not a punishment inflicted by the Gods but rather the product of environmental factors, diet, and living habits. Indeed there is not a single mention of a mystical illness in the entirety of the Hippocratic Corpus. Hippocratic medicine was humble and passive. The therapeutic approach was based on “the healing power of nature”. According to this doctrine, the body contains within itself the power to re-balance the four humours and heal itself (physis).Hippocratic therapy focused on simply easing this natural process.
Hippocrates and his followers were first to describe many diseases and medical conditions. He is given credit for the first description of clubbing of the fingers, an important diagnostic sign in chronic lung disease, lung cancer and cyanotic heart disease. For this reason, clubbed fingers are sometimes referred to as “Hippocratic fingers“. Hippocrates was also the first physician to describe Hippocratic face in Prognosis. Hippocrates began to categorize illnesses as acute, chronic, endemic and epidemic, and use terms such as, “exacerbation, relapse, resolution, crisis, paroxysm, peak.Another of Hippocrates’ major contributions may be found in his descriptions of the symptomatology, physical findings, surgical treatment and prognosis of thoracic empyema. His teachings remain relevant to present-day students of pulmonary medicine and surgery. Hippocrates was the first documented chest surgeon and his findings and techniques, while crude, such as the use of lead pipes to drain chest wall abscess, are still valid Hippocrates often used lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise to treat diseases such as diabetes, what is today called lifestyle medicine.
After the European Renaissance, Hippocratic methods were revived in western Europe and even further expanded in the 19th century. According to Aristotle‘s testimony, Hippocrates was known as “The Great Hippocrates”.
In Plato’s philosopher dialogue”Phaedrus” we can read about Hippocrates and his dogma:
Phaedrus: “Hippocrates the Asclepiad says that the nature even of the body can only be understood as a whole.”
Socrates: “Yes, friend, and he was right:-still, we ought not to be content with the name of Hippocrates, but to examine and see whether his argument agrees with his conception of nature.”
Phaedrus: “I agree.”
Socrates: “Then consider what truth, as well as Hippocrates, says about this or about any other nature. …”
sources : wikipedia.com,
romereborn.com , from IATH (this is a research unit of the University of Virginia established by the University of Virginia in 1992. Our goal is to explore and develop information technology as a tool for scholarly humanities research),
http://guides.library.jhu.edu/c.php?g=202502&p=1335759 The Sheridan Libraries Johns Hopkins University.
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucgajpd/medicina%20antiqua/sa_hippint.html , The UCL Centre for the History of Medicine, Division of Biosciences,
Heather MacDougall, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Waterloo.
G. Ross Langley MD, FRCPC, MACP, FRCP(Edin), Emeritus Professor of Medicine, Dalhousie University.
http://www.slideshare.net/deepalj/ethical-issues-in-research-2 and the main principles summerized.
https://lsnaith.wikispaces.com/file/view/Hippocratic+Oath.pdf and the Classic translation of the English, of the Oath of Hippocrates.
Ludwig Edelstein (23 April 1902 – 16 August 1965) was a classical scholar and historian of medicine He left Germany in 1933 and took up an appointment at Johns Hopkins University in 1934. Subsequently he taught at the University of Washington and the University of California at Berkeley, from which he resigned rather than sign the “loyalty oath”. He then returned to Johns Hopkins, where he had appointments at the University in Philosophy and at the School of Medicine in History of Medicine. At the University he taught ancient Greek philosophy in undergraduate and graduate seminars and courses. He was an inspiring and beloved teacher. Several of his Hopkins students became accomplished scholars. He retired from Hopkins and spent his last years at the then newly founded Rockefeller Institute.(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_Edelstein).