Visit our new site https://art-icons.com/
Hippocratic oath with god Asclepius.
Oath of Hippocrates, god of medicine Asclepius
Hippocratic oath with Asclepius god of medicine.
Asclepius was a god of medicine in ancient Greek and Roman religion and mythology. He was the sun of god Apollo and killed by Zeus with a thunderbolt, after bringing patients back from the dead. Hades thought that no more dead spirits would come to the underworld, so he asked his brother Zeus to stop him. Zeus killed Asclepius with a lightning bolt. This angered Apollo who killed the Cyclops, creators of Zeus’ lightning bolts. As punishment, Apollo was sent to labour as a shepherd in Thessaly ancient Greece for a year, King Admetus.
Asclepius daughters are Hygieia or Hygeia ( Hygiene goddess/personification of health, cleanliness, and sanitation), Iaso (the goddess of recuperation from illness), Aceso (the goddess of the healing process), Aglæa/Ægle (the goddess of beauty, splendor, glory, magnificence, and adornment), and Panacea (the goddess of universal remedy) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asclepius.
The Hippocratic Oath or Doctor’s oath is an oath historically taken by physicians, doctors. It is one of the most widely known texts of classical Greek medical texts worldwide. In its original form, it requires a new physician to swear, by the healing gods Apollo, Asclepius,Hygeia,panacea and others, to hold specific ethical standards of Hippocrates and his medical school.
Hippocrates often called the father of medicine in Western culture.
The original oath was written in Greek, and is included in the Hippocratic corpus, a collection of around 60 early Ancient Greek medical works associated with the physician Hippocrates and his teachings. The entire Hippocratic Corpus was first printed as a unit in 1525. This edition was edited by Fabius Calvus in Rome. Another edition was next year, from the in Vevice (1526). A significant edition was that of Emile Littre, with French translation of the Hippocratic Corpus.
https://www.einstein.yu.edu/uploadedFiles/EJBM/page41_page44.pdfFor the Hippocratic IDEAL see:
Asclepius was a god of medicine in ancient Greek and Roman mythology and religion. He was associated with the Roman god Vediovis. He was one of Apollo’s sons. The rod of Asclepius , a snake-entwined staff, remains a symbol of medicine today.Asclepius was the sun of god Apollo and the princess Koronis. and killed by Zeus with a thunderbolt, after bringing patients back from the dead. His mother died in labour and was laid out on the fire to be consumed, but Apollo rescued his child, cutting him from her womb. From this he received the name Asklepios “to cut open.”
The boy was raised by the centaurKheiron, who instructed him in the art of medicine, as he did with many other heroes of classical mythology (Achiles, Asclepius etc). Asklepius had the gift and the skills, so he was able to raise the dead. This was a crime against mother gaia and Hades. God of the dead, Hades, thought that no more deads would come to his underworld kingdom, so he asked his brother Zeus to stop Asclepius. Zeus killed him with a thunderbolt but angered Apollo who in turn, killed the Cyclops who made the thunderbolts for Zeus.
After Asclepius’ death, Zeus placed his body among the stars as the constellation Ophiuchus or the Serpent HolderAsclepius was also said to have been given from goddess Athena the Gorgon blood. The Gorgons were mythical female monsters that had snakes for hair, wings, bronze claws and eyes that could turn a human into stone with just a look. The blood from the left side of a Gorgon was supposed to kill anybody, while the blood from right side, was a healing force of nature.
Temple of Asclepius at Epidaurus, is major temple to the god of medicine, the Temple of Asclepius at Epidaurus. It was built in the early fourth century BCE. Among the greatest monuments of Greek Antiquity, the famous theatre at the Asklepieion of Epidaurus, is the finest and most renowned of its kind. The Asklepion of Epidaurus was first investigated by the French Scientific Expedition of the Peloponnese in 1829.
For the Cult of Asclepius and the classical traditions of the healing qualities of a physician and the healing power of a personal bond between doctor and patient, traditions that should not be forgotten by the modern doctors, see:
Asclepius god of medicine, god of health, healing god.
The Hippocratic oath: physician’s oath and gift, doctor’s oath gift.
Ancient classical temple, ionic style or order.
Ancient greek medicine symbol or asclepius rod.
Main moral -ethical principles of the oath of Hippocrates and the text with the original translation.
1.Do no harm. “I will take care that they suffer no hurt or damage” and “I will willingly refrain from doing any injury or wrong from falsehood”.
2.Not to assist suicide or administer euthanasia. “ Nor shall any man’s entreaty prevail upon me to administer poison to anyone; neither will I counsel any man to do so” or “I will neither give a deadly drug to anybody if asked for it, nor will I make a suggestion to this effect”.
translation of prof.Edelstein, Ludwig; Owsei Temkin, C. Lilian Temkin (1987). Owsei Temkin, C. Lilian Temkin. ed.Ancient Medicine(http://books google.com/books?id=WuTllFJleCIC&source=gbs_navlinks_s). Johns Hopkins University Press.
3.Not to cause abortion “I will give no sort of medicine to any pregnant woman, with a view to destroy the child” or “ I will not give to a woman an abortive remedy. In purity and holiness I will guard my life and my art”.
Edelstein, Ludwig; Owsei Temkin, C. Lilian Temkin (1987). Owsei Temkin, C. Lilian Temkin. ed.Ancient Medicine
(http://books google.com/books?id=WuTllFJleCIC&source=gbs_navlinks_s). Johns Hopkins University Press https://www.press.jhu.edu/ .
4. Refer patients for specialized treatment from the special doctor “commit that affair entirely to the surgeons”.
5.Not to abuse professional relationships,especially for sexual motiveses “I will willingly refrain from doing any injury or wrong from falsehood, and (in an especial manner) from acts of an amorous nature”or “keeping myself far from all intentional ill-doing and all seduction and especially from the pleasures of love with women or with men, be they free or slaves.The Hippocratic Oath”
(http://www.nlm.nihgov/hmd/greek/greek_oath.html). Translated by Michael North, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. . Retrieved 2009-02-02 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
6.To maintain patient’s confidence “Whatever, in the course of my practice, I may see or hear (even when not invited), whatever I may happen to obtain knowledge of, if it be not proper to repeat it, I will keep sacred and secret within my own breast”.
In ancient Greece and Rome, an asclepeion (Latin aesculapīum) was a healing temple, dedicated to Asclepius, the God of Medicine in the ancient world.
In the Asclepieion of Epidaurus in ancient Greece, three large marble boards dated to 350 BC preserve the names, case histories, complaints, and cures of about 70 patients who came to the temple with a problem and shed it there. Some surgical procedures such as the opening of an abdominal abscess or the removal of traumatic foreign material, are realistic enough to have taken place, but with the patient in a dream-like state known as “enkoimesis” (Greek: ἐγκοίμησις) or a formal anesthesia, induced with the help of substances such as opium.
Pausanias remarked, the famous asclepieion of Titane in Sicyon (founded by Alexanor, Asclepius’ grandson).
For Pergamon Asclepion and Galen see:
Hippocrates is said to have received his medical training at an asclepieion on the island of Kos, ancient Greece. Prior to becoming the personal physician to the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius, the famous doctor of the ancient world, Galen, studied at the famed asclepieion at Pergamon.(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asclepeion).
Temples to Asclepius were erected throughout the ancient Mediterranean. Those seeking healing would make pilgrimages to the sites and might perform prayers and sacrifices, make monetary gifts, or spend the night in the temple.
For the original work of Asclepius , we used art material from two ancient temples of Asclepius.
The Temple of Asclepius inside the Villa Borghese gardens, in Rome, which was built according to classical models in 1786 by architects Antonio and Mario Asprucci together with painter Cristopher Unterberger, perhaps as a memory of the destroyed ancient temple to the god of Medicine on the Tiber Island.
And the Cross-sections of restored temple of Asclepius at Epidaurus (From: Lechat, Henri. Epidaure, restauration et description des principaux monuments du sanctuaire d’Asclepios (Paris: Libraires-imprimeries réunis, 1895. Reconstruction of the interior, altar and statue of temple of Aesculapius at Epidaurus.Ancient Greece; Architecture; Architectures Alphonse Defrasse; Alphonse & Lechat, Henry).
The Asclepeion sanctuary of Epidaurus, was first studied by the French Scientific Expedition of the Peloponnese in 1829. Limited excavations of Epidaurus took place, such as by G. Roux of the French School at Athens in the area of the Abaton in 1942-43, and by I. Papadimitriou of the Greek Archaeological Service in 1948-51.
Temple of Aesculapius Rome
This temple was dedicated on the Tiber Island on January 1, 291 B.C. After a plague in Rome in 293 B.C., ambassadors were sent to the city of Epidaurus in Greece (a well-known center for healing and medicine). They were supposed to bring back the image of the god Aesculapius, the Greek god of healing, who had a large sanctuary in the town. When the ambassadors returned to Rome, they brought not the image but a serpent, the symbol of the god. The serpent abandoned the ship upon arrival in Rome and swam to the island. This was taken as a good omen. The entire island was consecrated to Aesculapius and a temple to the god was built on its southeast end.
Villa Borghese is a landscape garden in the naturalistic English manner in Rome, containing a number of buildings, museums (see Galleria Borghese) and attractions. In 1605, Cardinal Scipione Borghese, nephew of Pope Paul V and patron of Bernini, began turning this former vineyard into the most extensive gardens built in Rome since Antiquity.Inside the gardens is the 18th century “Temple of Aesculapius” built purely as a landscape feature, influenced by the lake at Stourhead, Wiltshire, England.
The Temple of Aesculapius (Tempio di Esculapio) is an eighteenth century addition to the grounds. Built in 1786 by Antonio and Mario Asprucci, the building is of Ionic design and houses a statue of the eponymous god.3 Turner’s sketch looks across at the temple from the opposite side of a small lake. In the bottom right-hand corner he has made an accurate transcription of the Greek inscription which runs beneath the frieze across the façade.
Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidaurus
In a small valley in the Peloponnesus, the shrine of Asklepios, the god of medicine, developed during the 6th century BC at the latest, as the official cult of the city state of Epidaurus. Its principal monuments, particularly the temple of Asklepios, the Tholos and the Theatre – considered one of the masterpieces of Greek classical architecture – date from the 4th century. The vast site, with its temples and hospital buildings devoted to its healing gods, provides valuable insight into the healing cults of Greek and Roman times. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/491
The Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidaurus is a testament to the healing cults of the Ancient World and witness to the emergence of scientific medicine.The Sanctuary is the earliest organized sanatorium and is significant for its association with the history of medicine, providing evidence of the transition from belief in divine healing to the science of medicine. The site was the single most important therapeutic center of the ancient world. Therapeutic practices were subsequently spread to the rest of the Greco-Roman world and the Sanctuary thus became the cradle of medicine.
Greek and Roman Surgical Instruments:
Several surgical instruments were designed and constructed during the classical period. Ancient texts mention the use of surgical tools, and even in theatre, Aristophanes in his play “the Acarnians” , puts wounded general Lamachus, to call for an Athenian doctor.
Several surgical tools were found at Asclepion of Kos during excavations. Exactly twenty four tools were found, belonging to the so called Hippocratic collection, and now are in museums or private collections. (Museum of Dion, North Greece).
The World Heritage property contains within its boundaries all the key attributes that convey the Outstanding Universal Value of the Sanctuary. The theatre is admired for its exceptional acoustics, which permit almost perfect intelligibility of unamplified spoken words from the proscenium or skēnē to all 14,000 spectators, regardless of their seating (see Ref., in Greek). Famously, tour guides have their groups scattered in the stands and show them how they can easily hear the sound of a match struck at center-stage. A 2007 study by Nico F. Declercq and Cindy Dekeyser of the Georgia Institute of Technology (http://www.gatech.edu/)indicates that the astonishing acoustic properties may be the result of the advanced design.
The Hippocratic oath, is an ethical code attributed to the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, adopted as a guide to conduct by the medical profession throughout the ages and still used in the graduation ceremonies of many medical schools. Although little is known of the life of Hippocrates, a body of manuscripts, called the Hippocratic Collection (Corpus Hippocraticum), survived until modern times.
The collection provides a code of ethical principles for the teachers of medicine and for their students. This code, or a fragment of it, has been handed down in various versions through generations of physicians as the Hippocratic oath.
Hippocrates of Kos, was a Greek physician of the age of Pericles classical Greece, and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. Known as the father of western medicine, in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. Hippocrates is credited with being the first person to believe that diseases were caused naturally, not because of superstition and gods. Hippocrates was credited by the disciples of Pythagoras of allying philosophy and medicine. He separated the discipline of medicine from religion, believing and arguing that disease was not a punishment inflicted by the Gods but rather the product of environmental factors, diet, and living habits. Indeed there is not a single mention of a mystical illness (or a god intervention) in the entire Hippocratic Corpus.
On the ethical side, their code of professional ethics is so well structured that it continues to stand as a model for other professions.
Hippocratic medicine was humble and passive. The therapeutic approach was based on “the healing power of nature“. According to this doctrine, the body contains within itself the power to re-balance the four humours and heal itself (physis).Hippocratic therapy focused on simply easing this natural process.
Hippocrates and his followers were first to describe many diseases and medical conditions. The Hippocratics taught us that understanding of sickness required understanding of nature. “This combination demonstrated the ability of Hippocrates and his disciples to separate medical observation from religion and magic and to shift the focus from class-based medical care to selfless service of individual patients.
The Hippocratic oath, which for centuries encapsulated the ideals of medical purpose and physicianly conduct, begins and ends with an attempt to locate the practice of medicine and the doctor himself within the greater order. (https://bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu/pcbe/bookshelf/reader/chapter3.html#reading).
Hippocrates is given credit for the first description of clubbing of the fingers, an important diagnostic sign in chronic lung disease, lung cancer and cyanotic heart disease. For this reason, clubbed fingers are sometimes referred to as “Hippocratic fingers“. Hippocrates was also the first physician to describe Hippocratic face in Prognosis, Hippocrates began to categorize illnesses as acute, chronic, endemic and epidemic, and use terms such as, “exacerbation, relapse, resolution, crisis, paroxysm, peak. Another of Hippocrates’ major contributions may be found in his descriptions of the symptomatology, physical findings, surgical treatment and prognosis of thoracic empyema. His teachings remain relevant to present-day students of pulmonary medicine and surgery.Hippocrates was the first documented chest surgeon and his findings and techniques, while crude, such as the use of lead pipes to drain chest wall abscess, are still valid Hippocrates often used lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise to treat diseases such as diabetes, what is today called lifestyle medicine. Hippocrates, in his work On Injuries of the Head, described the different types of skull fractures and provided specific instructions as well as warnings about the use, and the dangers, of trepanation.
Hippocratism is – a system of medicine attributed to Hippocrates and his disciples that is based on the imitation of nature’s processes in the therapeutic management of disease.
For Hippocratism school of thought see:
After the European Renaissance, Hippocratic methods were revived in western Europe and even further expanded in the 19th century. According to Aristotle‘s testimony, Hippocrates was known as “The Great Hippocrates“.
In Plato’s philosopher dialogue”Phaedrus” we can read about Hippocrates and his dogma:
Phaedrus: “Hippocrates the Asclepiad says that the nature even of the body can only be understood as a whole.”
Socrates: “Yes, friend, and he was right:-still, we ought not to be content with the name of Hippocrates, but to examine and see whether his argument agrees with his conception of nature.”
Phaedrus: “I agree.”
Socrates: “Then consider what truth, as well as Hippocrates, says about this or about any other nature. …”
“Thus Socrates in the Phaedrus tells orators to think like physicians—in particular, like the “Hippocrates” who founded all medicine on a complete and systematic theory of nature”. Chapter 2. Plato’s Concession to the Practical Arts in the Phaedrushttp:
http://chs.harvard.edu/CHS/article/display/5562 and Harvard University’s Center for Hellenic Studies, located in Washington DC (http://chs.harvard.edu/) .
The Corpus after Antiquity
The figure of Hippocrates as “Father of Medicine” remains a potent one in medical circles throughout antiquity and beyond, although he is increasingly viewed through Galen’s lens, which pictures an Hippocrates who is very much like Galen himself. Galen’s enthusiasm for certain texts in the Hippocratic Corpus was crucial to the continuing interest later physicians took in Hippocrates and his writings, and Hippocratic texts were copied in sufficient numbers to survive into Byzantine times and be reimported into the West during the Renaissance.
Renaissance anatomists, such as Vesalius and Paré, pointed with scorn to mistaken deductions that Galen drew from his dissections on animals, and Galen’s influence suffered as a result. By contrast, once the Corpus was translated into Latin early in the sixteenth century, the prestige of Hippocrates and his writings escalated throughout Europe. Hippocratics find it important to absorb all human diseases within their medical technê, including the very difficult sicknesses of sudden seizures and premenarchic madness, and to this end they not only assign mechanical causes that interact with the anatomy and physiology they endorse, but they also employ therapies that reverse a diseased condition in accordance with the same mechanical principles.
“Opposites cure opposites” is a deliberate intellectual stance in opposition to the “like cures like” of sympathetic magic. Hippocratics know how to speak the language of science, and they are certainly the first in the Western tradition to write medical science in a form that has survived to our time. They formulate questions that the West has continued to ask: What makes this person sick? Do women get sick in the same way as men? We can object that neither a descent of phlegm from the head as an etiology for epilepsy, nor a fantasy membrane at the mouth of the uterus in the young girl, is an empirically visible phenomenon; and we can dismiss the medical content of their science. We cling, however, to some of their deontology and medical ethics, as summarized in the Hippocratic Oath.
What is important here is that these medical writers are asking not “Who causes this sickness?” but rather, “By what process does this sickness occur?” However imaginative their mechanistic explanations may be, Hippocratics can defend them with arguments that appeal to process, not to a capricious or malevolent deity, and they can explain the therapies they prescribe in terms of the actions that their medicaments set in motion. (Ann Ellis Hanson The University of Michigan https://www.umich.edu/).
Greek and Roman traditions of oaths.
Since Lycurgus of Athens (d. 324 BCE), who held that “it is the oath which holds democracy together”, religion and morality had been linked by an oath and the oath had become the basis of international law.
In the Roman tradition, oaths were sworn upon Iuppiter Lapis or the Jupiter Stone located in the Temple of Jupiter, Capitoline Hill. Iuppiter Lapis was held in the Roman religion and tradition to be an Oath Stone. Jupiter was the divine law-maker responsible for order.
Hippocratic oath: Abortion and Lithal injections.
The Hippocratic Oath prohibits abortion.
The Hippocratic oath has a clear section about poisons given to humans.”Neither will I administer a poison to anybody when asked to do so, nor will I suggest such a course”. But there has been a large debate on whether doctors administering or facilitating lethal injections to prisoners are breaking the Hippocratic Oath they took.(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocratic_Oath).
More modern revisions of the oath, have avoided any mention of abortion and, as in a popular 1964 revision (by Dr. Louis Lasagna, a physician at Johns Hopkins University). http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/the-myth-of-the-hippocratic-oath-201511258447
Euthanasia in Hippocratic medical texts
Lethal injection has also been used in cases of euthanasia to facilitate voluntary death in patients with terminal or chronically painful conditions.
Euthanasia was practiced in Ancient Greece and Rome: for example, hemlock was employed as a means of hastening death on the island of Kea, a technique also employed in Marseilles. Euthanasia, in the sense of the deliberate hastening of a person’s death, was supported by Socrates, Plato and Seneca the Elder in the ancient world, although Hippocrates appears to have spoken against the practice, writing “I will not prescribe a deadly drug to please someone, nor give advice that may cause his death” (noting there is some debate in the literature about whether or not this was intended to encompass euthanasia).
For the medicalized executions creating an ethical conflict to doctors and the medical community—the “Hippocratic paradox.” see:
The Declaration of Geneva (Physician’s Oath/Doctor’s oath) was adopted by the General Assembly of the World Medical Association at Geneva in 1948, amended in 1968, 1983, 1994 and editorially revised in 2005 and 2006. It is a declaration of a physician‘s dedication to the humanitarian goals of medicine, a declaration that was especially important in view of the medical crimes which had just been committed in Nazi Germany. The Declaration of Geneva was intended as a revision of the Hippocratic Oath to a formulation of that oath’s moral truths that could be comprehended and acknowledged in a modern way. In 1946, a study committee had been appointed to prepare a “Charter of Medicine” which could be adopted as an oath or promise that every doctor in the world would make upon receiving his medical degree or diploma. It took two years of intensive study of the oaths and promises submitted by member associations to draft a modernized wording of the ancient oath of Hippocrates which was sent for consideration at the WMA’s second general assembly in Geneva in 1948. The medical vow was adopted and the assembly agreed to name it the “Declaration of Geneva.” This document was adopted by the World Medical Association only three months before the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) which provides for the security of the person.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_of_Geneva for Physician’s Oath.
The” first, do no harm ” phrase or Primum non nocere in Latin.
The origin of the phrase is uncertain. The Hippocratic Oath includes the promise “to abstain from doing harm” (Greek: ἐπὶ δηλήσει δὲ καὶ ἀδικίῃ εἴρξειν) but does not include the precise phrase. Perhaps the closest approximation in the entire Hippocratic Corpus is in book Epidemics: “The physician must … have two special objects in view with regard to disease, namely, to do good or to do no harm” (book I, sect. 11, trans. Adams, Greek: ἀσκέειν, περὶ τὰ νουσήματα, δύο, ὠφελέειν, ἢ μὴ βλάπτειν).
“But at the end, the phrase is a reminder that we need high-quality research to help us better understand the balance of risk and benefit for the tests and treatments we recommend. Ultimately, it is also a reminder that doctors should neither overestimate their capacity to heal, nor underestimate their capacity to cause harm”.(http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/first-do-no-harm-201510138421, Robert H. Shmerling, MD, Faculty Editor, Harvard Health Publications at Harvard Health Publications http://www.health.harvard.edu/).
The idea of a Hippocratic Oath for scientists was first suggested by Joseph Rotblat in his acceptance speech for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995. In 2001, in the scientific journal Biochemical Journalhttp://www.biochemj.org/ , Nobel laureate John Sulston proposed an oath so that scientists could declare their intention “to cause no harm and to be wholly truthful in their public pronouncements, and also to protect them from discrimination by employers who might prefer them to be economical with the truth.” Sulston stopped short of suggesting potential wording for an oath. In a recent issue of the journal Science the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, Sir Joseph Rotblat, proposes a Hippocratic oath for scientists, an oath, or pledge, initiated by the Pugwash Group in the United States (Science 286, 1475 1999).
romereborn.com , from IATH (this is a research unit of the University of Virginia ( http://www.virginia.edu/) established by the University of Virginia in 1992. Our goal is to explore and develop information technology as a tool for scholarly humanities research),
http://guides.library.jhu.edu/c.php?g=202502&p=1335759 The Sheridan Libraries Johns Hopkins University. http://www.library.jhu.edu/#
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucgajpd/medicina%20antiqua/sa_hippint.html , The UCL Centre for the History of Medicine, Division of Biosciences, https://www.ucl.ac.uk/histmed
Heather MacDougall, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Waterloo https://uwaterloo.ca/history/
G. Ross Langley MD, FRCPC, MACP, FRCP(Edin), Emeritus Professor of Medicine, Dalhousie University http://www.dal.ca/
http://www.slideshare.net/deepalj/ethical-issues-in-research-2 and the main principles summerized.
https://lsnaith.wikispaces.com/file/view/Hippocratic+Oath.pdf and the Classic translation of the English, of the Oath of Hippocrates.
Ludwig Edelstein (23 April 1902 – 16 August 1965) was a classical scholar and historian of medicine He left Germany in 1933 and took up an appointment at Johns Hopkins Universityhttps(://www.jhu.edu/ ) in 1934. Subsequently he taught at the University of Washington (http://www.washington.edu/) and the University of California at Berkeley http://www.berkeley.edu/, from which he resigned rather than sign the “loyalty oath”. He then returned to Johns Hopkins, where he had appointments at the University in Philosophy and at the School of Medicine in History of Medicine. At the University he taught ancient Greek philosophy in undergraduate and graduate seminars and courses. He was an inspiring and beloved teacher. Several of his Hopkins students became accomplished scholars. He retired from Hopkins and spent his last years at the then newly founded Rockefeller Institute.(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_Edelstein).