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Goddess Athena and sacred olive tree.
Platonic Academy, Academy of Plato and the sacred olive trees
Ancient Panathenaic athletic games and Olympic Games
goddess Athena Minerva, god Poseidon Neptune.
Athena or Athene often given the name Pallas is the virgin goddess, thw goddess of wisdom,of strategy,goddess of virgin,of courage, inspiration, civilization, goddess of law and justice.
Also goddess of music,of poetry ,goddess of medicine, commerce,mathematics, olive cultivation, strength, war strategy, arts,goddess of magic, owl goddess, goddess of crafts, and skill in ancient Greek Roman religion and mythology.
Minerva is the Roman goddess identified with Athena, goddess of wisdom, handicrafts, strategic warfare and trade. She is the virgin patroness of Athens. The Athenians founded the Parthenon on the Acropolis of her namesake city, Athens (Athena Parthenos of virgin), in her honour.
Athena competed with Poseidon to be the patron deity of the city of Athens, which was yet unnamed, in a version of one founding myth. They agreed that each would give the Athenians one gift and that the Athenians would choose the gift they preferred. Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring sprang up; this gave them a means of trade and water, but the water was salty and not very good for drinking.According to another myth, god Poseidon gave to the city the first horse.
Athena, however, offered them the first domesticated olive tree. Poseidon, God of the seas and Zeus’ brother, coveted earthly kingdoms and so claimed the possession of Attica, driving his trident into the Athenian Acropolis which became a well of salt water. Later, Athena came to town and took it in a very peaceful way calling Cecrops, first King of Athens, as a witness. Athena made an olive tree spring from just next to the well.
Moria Elea was the first olive tree that Goddess Athena, protector of the city of Athens, planted outside the Parthenon in the Acropolis.
For the domestication of olive tree, arround 4500BC see:
Moria Elea: According to Greek mythology, goddess Athena planted the first olive tree in Acropolis, in the temple of Erechtheum “Zeus Morios“ and so it was called “Moria Elea” (elea is the Greek name for olive tree). It was a sacred tree for the Greeks, a symbol of wisdom, peace and triumph. Athenians believed that Moria elea was the first olive tree in the world. From that sacred tree, twelve other olive trees were made for Akademia, a place that marked the twelve gated entries to the property. This part of ancient Athens was later, and still is, named ‘Eleonas’ (olive grove) because of those ancient olive trees. From that trees, olive oil was distributed as prizes for ancient athletic games. All messengers used to carry an olive branch as a symbol of peace. Also, the Greeks used to crown Olympic champions with olive branch wreaths (of “kotino or agrielia” which are both types of olive trees).
Later this place was The Academy of Plato . Founded by Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) in ca. 387 BC in Athens.
Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) studied there for twenty years (367 BC – 347 BC) before founding his own school, the Lyceum of Athens.
The Platonic Academy has been cited by historians as the first higher learning institution in the Western world.
The site of the Academy was sacred to Athena and other immortals; it had sheltered her religious cult since the Bronze Age, a cult that was perhaps also associated with the hero-gods the Dioscuri (Castor and Polydeuces), for the hero Akademos associated with the site was credited with revealing to the Divine Twins where Theseus had hidden Helen. Out of respect for its long tradition and the association with the Dioscuri, the Spartans would not ravage these original “groves of Academe” when they invaded Attica, a piety not shared by the Roman Sulla, who axed the sacred olive trees of Athena in 86 BC to build siege engines.
Among the religious observances that took place at the Akademeia was a torchlit night race from altars within the city to Prometheus’ altar in the Akademeia. Funeral games also took place in the area as well as a Dionysiac procession from Athens to the Hekademeia and then back to the polis.
In the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Moria was the name given at the beginning of the late Third Age to an enormous and by then very ancient underground complex in north-western Middle-earth, comprising a vast network of tunnels, chambers, mines and huge halls or mansions, that ran under and ultimately through the Misty Mountains. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Misty_Mountains
God Poseidon(roman god Neptune) god of sea,god of water,ocean, of horse racing, god of earthshaker and earthquakes, god of Atlantis and god of storms was in anger and challenged the goddess Athena.But father god Zeus intervened and ordered the formation of a divine tribunal to decide which of the two gods should be enshrined in the city of Athens. Thus, the tribunal formed by the Olympic deities, after listening to the testimony of Cecrops decided to side with Athena.The Athenians (or their king, Cecrops) accepted the olive tree and with it the patronage of Athena, for the olive tree brought wood, oil, and food. One of the most famous celebrations in Athens was the Panathenaic festival, celebrated in the honour of the Goddess Athena, protector of the city. The Panathenaic Games were held every four years in Athens in Ancient Greece since 566 BC. They continued into the 3rd century CE. These Games incorporated religious festival, ceremony (including prize-giving), athletic competitions, and cultural events hosted within a stadium.It used to be celebrated in the month of July and lasted various days, during which they had horse races, gymnastic exhibitions, competitions and various musical and literary shows. The first Great Panathenaea was held during the rule of Peisistratos in 566 BC, and was modelled on the Olympic Games. Peisistratos also added music and poetry competitions, which were part of the Pythian Games but not the Olympics. The games were divided into games for Athenians only, and games for Athenians and any other Greeks who wanted to participate. The games for all Greeks were essentially the same as the Olympics, with boxing, wrestling, pankration, pentathlon, and chariot racing, but chariot racing was the most prestigious of these, unlike the Olympics where the stadion (foot race) was more important. A sister-event to the Great Panathenaea was held every year – the Lesser Panathenaea, which was 3–4 days shorter in celebration. They were the most prestigious games for the citizens of Athens, but they were not as important as the Olympic Games.
The Olympiad was one of the ways the ancients measured time. The Olympic Games were used as a starting point, year one of the cycle; the Nemean and Isthmian Games were both held (in different months) in year two, followed by the Pythian Games in year three, and then the Nemean and Isthmian Games again in year four. The cycle then repeated itself with the Olympic Games. They were structured this way so that individual athletes could participate in all of the games.(But note that the dial on the Antikythera mechanism – seems to show that the Nemean and Isthmian Games did not occur in the same years.).
The Antikythera mechanism is an ancient analog computer designed to predict astronomical positions and eclipses for calendrical and astrological purposes,as well as the Olympiads, the cycles of the ancient Olympic Games.The artifact was recovered probably in July 1901 from the Antikythera shipwreck off the Greek island of Antikythera. Believed to have been designed and constructed by Greek scientists, the instrument has been dated either between 150 and 100 BC, or, according to a more recent view, at 205 BC.In 2012, marine archeologist Brendan P. Foley of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the United States received permission from the Greek Government to conduct new dives around the deep shoals of Antikythera.Cardiff University professor Michael Edmunds, who led a 2006 study of the mechanism, described the device as “just extraordinary, the only thing of its kind”, and said that its astronomy was “exactly right”. He regarded the Antikythera mechanism as “more valuable than the Mona Lisa“.
Participants could come from all over the Greek world, including the various Greek colonies from Asia Minor to Spain. However, participants probably had to be fairly wealthy in order to pay for training, transportation, lodging, and other expenses. Neither women nor non-Greeks were allowed to participate, except for very occasional later exceptions, such as the Roman emperor Nero.
To the winners of the competitions they gave them a prize of an amphora (ceramic vase, as below) with olive oil that had been cultivated in the Attican olive fields sacred to Athens especially to Academia. This piece of land was subsequently adorned with plane and olive plantations, and was called Academia after its original owner.This grove of trees on the northwest side of the city, held to be his burial place, was ever after dedicated to his memory. Within this grove Plato gave his lectures and thus the phrase “the groves of Academe”. Due to this Akademos’ name has been linked to the archaic name for the site of Plato’s Academy, the Hekademeia, outside the walls of Athens.The site was sacred to Athena, the goddess of wisdom, and other immortals; it had since the Bronze Age sheltered her religious cult, which was perhaps associated with the hero-gods, the Dioskouroi (Castor and Polydeukes), and for the hero Akademos. By classical times the name of the place had evolved into the Akademeia. Its sacred grove furnished the olive oil that was distributed as prizes in the Panathenaic Games and contained in the finely decorated Panathenaic amphorae presented to the winners.
Hercules also, one of the most well-known mythological heroes, is related to the olive tree. Even though he was very young Hercules managed to kill the Cithaeron lion which was ravaging the countryside, using only his own hands and a wooden stake from a wild olive tree. This act indentified the olive tree with strength and resistence. Hercules is also famous for his twelve labours (“Herculean labours”) commissioned by his cousin Eurystheus in order to atone his sins after he killed his family in a blind frenzy. During these labours he used various weapons, including a club, which is one of the most significant attributes of Hercules, along with the lion skin. This club was made of the wood from an olive tree and if it was dug into the ground it began to take root to until it converted into tree. Amongst other things, with this club Hercules managed to corner the Nemean lion in a cave and then he strangled it with his own hands.
Minerva was the Roman goddess of wisdom and sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy. She was born with weapons from the head of Jupiter. From the 2nd century BC onwards, the Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena. She was the virgin goddess of music, poetry, medicine, wisdom.Cecrops was a mythical king of Athens who, according to Eusebius reigned for fifty years. The name is not of Greek origin according to Strabo, or it might mean ‘face with a tail’: it is said that, born from the earth itself, he had his top half shaped like a man and the bottom half in serpent or fish-tail form. He was the founder and the first king of Athens itself, though preceded in the region by the earth-born king Actaeus of Attica. Cecrops was a culture hero, teaching the Athenians marriage, reading and writing, and ceremonial burial.
On the hedge apology “
In Athens of classic years, they were are taken special measures of protection of olive trees. The Athenian state exhibited great interest and particular care for the holy trees of Athens. They restrict olive groves, even the individual olive trees, with a wooden fence, which was called “nave or hedge” to signify status and their special significance. The control of these trees was regular. Each month the Supreme Court sent curators and once a year send supervisors to make sure the olives were in good condition. The owners, but also those that rented and cultivated olive groves, had the obligation to ensure that the trees and, in particular, not to cultivate no other plant at a fixed distance from the olive. Also, not to uproot or destroy old or dead trees, because they could germinate again.It is said that this was happened with the destroyed, by the Persians , sacred olive tree at Acropolis in 480 BC. The punishment of those who either violate the “nave” or causing damage to sacred trees was hard: “and if no one eradicated sacred olive trees (or morias) he was tried by the Supreme Courtand if they were founded guilty, condemned to death …”. The ratio of Lysias’ Areopagitikos or “nave apology “ was written in 394 BC to prevail before the Supreme Court as plea by some Athenian that was blamed for the destruction of the hedge, (wooden fence) of an sacred olive tree. After the Peloponnesian war the Athenians faced a serious problem with the “sacred mories” olives. Many of them were burned during the war, but no one had the right not only to clean the black trunks from where olive trees of Attica, nor to hurt special enclosures such logs, the ‘nave’.
First king of the city, according to legend, was Pelasgos Akteon and its original name was “Beach” or “Aktiki” .Ton Akteo succeeded by his son in law, “Cecrops,” by which was named “Kekropia” who was half man and half erpeto.To palace was upon the sacred rock in place later Erechtheiou.Symfona by Plato in his “Timaeus” project, Egyptian priests of Isis revealed to Solon visited them that according to their records, there was thriving city with the name “Athens” before great cataclysm 9560 BC (Deucalion) during which precipitated Atlantis and Aigiis (the site of the Aegean).
So then Cecrops reigned procataclysm, if the name “Athens” delivered on the day, as we shall see below, not in 3500, or otherwise in 1500 BC, except for another with the same name .
Already on Cecrops reign, as telling historical Apollodorus his “Historical Library” ,seemed good to the gods to understand cities as a “patron”, which will be honored by any particular god.
For the name of city of king cecrops, quarreled Neptune and Athina . First god Neptune or Poseidon struck the rock of the Acropolis with trident, and immediately sea water well .That point was called “Erechtheis sea”, in western part of the Erechtheion and it was dedicated to Neptune Poseidon.Immediately after Athena struck her spear on the ground, a small olive tree appeared. King Cecrops surprised and impressed by the gift of Athena and decided to choose that gift and make her the city’s protector. So he took Athens named.The point were goddess hit, is that in the western part of the Erechtheion Acropolis, where today there is a modern olive .The olive tree that in ancient times was called “molecule” (= of fate, Morrow = bane, death for anyone who does not respect it or moria).The Cecrops introduced the worship of Zeus and offers dishes (pelanos) ceremonies, instead of human sacrifice. The tomb of the Acropolis was maintained until the 4th century BC.