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Caesarean section


Caesarean section and classical mythology review.
known as C-section, caesarean is a surgical procedure made through a mother’s abdomen and uterus to deliver one or more babies. The World Health Organization recommends that they should be done based only on medical need. Caesarean sections are effective in saving maternal and infant lives, but only when they are required for medically indicated reasons.The typical method for the Caesarean section is the Pfannenstiel incision named after Hermann Johannes Pfannenstiel (June 28, 1862 – July 3, 1909) a German gynecologist born in Berlin.
Mythological history of c section procedures.
Asclepius, god of medicine, ancient Greece
As Asclepius mother princess Coronis was burning on the funeral fire, (after Apollo punnished her) god Apollo performed the first Caesarian section, freeing the baby Asclepius from his mother’s womb and certain death.
god of wine Dionysus ,Olympus deities or gods, Olympian gods, ancient Greece.
god
Dionysus had a strange birth that evokes the difficulty in fitting him into the Olympian pantheon. His mother was a mortal woman, Semele, the daughter of king Cadmus of Thebes, and his father was Zeus, the king of the gods.Semele was pregnant and demanded of Zeus that he reveal himself in all his glory as proof of his godhood. Zeus came to her wreathed in bolts of lightning; mortals, however, could not look upon an undisguised god without dying, and she perished in the ensuing blaze. Zeus rescued the unborn Dionysus by sewing him into his thigh, after he took the baby from his mother womb.
http://www.uwomj.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/v78n1.79-85.pdf
Budha
The Budha, is said that, was born from the right flank of his mother Maya from Evolutionary Perspectives on Pregnancy by John Avise Columbia University Press
Julius Caesar, Roman history.
Julius Caesar is said that was born with a c section, although we dont have enough documents to support it. “The origin of the term “caesarean” is falsely attributed to Julius Caesar, who was thought to have been born with this modality in 104 BC. It is likely, however, that the first attempts at this procedure were subsequent to the Lex Regia of 715 BC. At that time, the operation was performed only when the mother was dead or dying, as an attempt to save the child”.
http://www.jpnim.com/index.php/jpnim/article/viewFile/010109/19
http://www.neonatology.org/pdf/cesarean.pdf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caesarean_section
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_Johannes_Pfannenstiel
http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/161442/1/WHO_RHR_15.02_eng.pdf
Evolutionary Perspectives on Pregnancy Columbia john Avise University Press.

 

Sirenomelia: The mermaid syndrome and ancient Greek (ancient Athens) King Cecrops.

Sirenomelia (mermaid syndrome) is a rare congenital fetal anomaly with characteristic feature of complete or partial fusion of lower limbs.
It is a rare and fatal congenital defect characterized by varying degrees of lower limb fusion, thoracolumbar spinal anomalies, sacrococcygeal agenesis, genitourinary, and anorectal atresia. The incidence of sirenomelia is 0.8-1 case/100,000 births with male to female ratio being 3:1.
King Cecrops, the ancient mythological King of ancient Athens, (ancient Greece) was said that, he was born from the earth itself and that he had his top half shaped like a man and the bottom half in serpent or fish-tail form. This could be a sign of the rare mermaid syndrome to king’s Cecrops.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367057/
J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2015 Jan-Jun; 6(1): 264–266. from Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine or  National Library of Medicine (NLM), on the campus of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. http://jnsnet.info/

 

WHY DID GOD HEPHAISTOS LIMP? Medical review with sources.
Ancient greece medical articles

The question of why god Hephaestus, the Olynmpian god of smiths, limped has been the subject of much debate, mainly on mythological grounds. This debate extended also into the field of medical diagnosis, with attempts at defining the nature of the deformity that made the crippled god Hephaestus. Hephaestus had two sons, Palaemonius and Periphetes, were also reported as having deformed feet.
ArticleinAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics 83(1):53-63 · April 1999). http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=501337
Differential diagnosis:
1.Bilateral congenital talipes equinovarus. it has a strong multifactorial hereditary component but no upper limb features or short stature
Am J Med Genet. 1997 Oct 17;72(2):144-5What makes Hephaestus lame?Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou E
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9382134
2.Arthrogryposis, in which bilateral rigid congenital talipes equinovarus occurs, and which could explain the elbows fixed in flexion.
http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC1633552/) and Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine J R Soc Med. 2006 November; 99(11): 584–585
3.Achondroplasia, would not explain the foot deformities; this diagnosis is based on earlier images of the god, evoking Egyptian depictions of deities such as Ptah, Bes and Harpocrates. Aterman K. Why did Hephaestus limp? Am J Dis Child 1965;109: 381-92 [PubMed]) and THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DISEASES OF CHILDREN. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10076885
4. Peripheral neuropathy secondary to arsenic poisoning,
an affection of smelters. Aterman K. From Horus the child to Hephaestus who limps: a romp through history. Am J Med Genet 1999;83: 53-63 [PubMed]) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10076885
and THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DISEASES OF CHILDREN  http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/journal.aspx
This is, in my opinion, Hephaestus disease. See below the clinical symptoms
The description of an historical arsenic exposure highlights its multiple organ system effects. such as
anorexia, brown pigmentation,peripheral neuritis (muscular weakness, pain and paresthesias in extremities) etc.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/csem.asp?csem=1&po=11 and :The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATDSR) offers environmental health and medicine education products for health professionals, community members, and interested members of the public.Environmental Health and Medicine Education.
5.Diastrophic dysplasia, short-limbed dwarfism with bilateral rigid foot deformities.
Silverman FN. Re: ‘Why did Hephaestus limp?’ Am J Dis Child 1965;109: 392 and http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC1633552/ http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC1633552/
6.Pseudodiastrophic dysplasia, in which elbow dislocations are prominent,5 but very few cases have been described.
Eteson DJ, Beluffi G, Burgio GR, Belloni C, Lachman RS, Rimoin DL. Pseudodiastrophic dysplasia: a distinct newborn skeletal dysplasia. J Pediatr 1986;109: 635-41 [PubMed] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3761077

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/13848129_What_makes_Hephaestus_lame

Did Socrates had Epilepsy?Medical review and a great diagnostic article for Socrates and Grave’s disease.
Ancient greece medical articles.

“Some enigmatic remarks and behaviors of Socrates have been a subject of debate among scholars”. The investigation of the possibility of underlying epilepsy in Socrates by analyzing pathographic evidence in ancient literature from the viewpoint of the current understanding of seizure semiology was thorough and the conclusions are “We hypothesize that Socrates had a mild case of TLE without secondary generalization. This is the first report in 2,400 years to present a pathographic diagnosis of TLE in Socrates based on specific diagnostic features in the ancient textual evidence. Our study demonstrates that the knowledge of modern epileptology could help understand certain behaviors of historic figures”.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16529635
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24585826
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2006.00600.x/pdf
https://www.midmichigan.org/conditions-treatments/neuroscience/epilepsy/
“The philosopher Socrates had exophthalmos (a term coined by Plato) and probably Graves’ disease.According to a previously published theory, Socrates was afflicted with temporal lobe epilepsy since his childhood. Plato, Xenophon, and Aristoxenus described Socrates as having exophthalmos, probably diplopia, and some symptoms compatible with hyperthyroidism. Using these data, we theorize that Socrates had Graves’ disease”.
http://www.hormones.gr/8533/article/the-philosopher-socrates-had-exophthalmos%E2%80%A6.html
http://www.hormones.gr/pdf/DOI_716_Papapetrou.pdf

Cyclops and cyclopia: A congenital disorder and a mythology review

Cyclops are among the best-known monsters of Greek mythology, also mentioned in art and literature. According to the most recent scientific knowledge, the malformations caused by defective development of the anterior brain and midline mesodermal structures include cyclopia (synophthalmos), ethmocephaly, cebocephaly and arrhinencephaly”. Cyclops appear for the first time in Greek mythology, when god Apollo kills them, after the death of his son Asclepius. Again in literatureand in Homer’s Odyssey (8th-7th century BC), and then in “Theogonia“, written by Hesiodus.
http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/250129
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajmg.1320140104/abstract
http://www.worldwidejournals.com/ijar/file.php?val=April_2015_1427894697__136.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24640588
https://www.scientificexploration.org/forum/mythology%E2%80%99s-extraterrestrial-gods-the-giant-cyclops

Polyphemus and Pituitary gigantism. A medical aproach to the “third eye”.

Men of supernatural stature are found everywhere in mythology and traditions of almost every culture.Giants, were present all over mythologies, legends and religion. http://www.encyclopedia.com/utility/printdocument.aspx?id=1O128:giants
http://www.ums.ac.uk/umj080/080%281%29031.pdf
Polyphemus, the well known cyclop, may had a disease called pituitary gigantism, caused by the enlargement of the pituitary gland. Pituitary tumors arise from the pituitary gland within the base of the skull. These tumors are almost always benign.
Symptoms arise when these tumors secrete hormones or become large enough to compress adjacent structures. The adenoma of pituitary gland, causes pituitary gigantism.
“Gigantism is a serious condition that is nearly always caused by an adenoma, a tumor of the pituitary gland. Gigantism occurs in patients who had excessive growth hormone in childhood. The pituitary tumor cells secrete too much growth hormone (GH), leading to many changes in the body”.
http://pituitary.ucla.edu/resources.
From Goliath to polyphemus, and from the Nephelim in Genesis to Fafner of Richard Wagner, all these giants had the same clinical signs and symptoms. The main symptom associated with gigantism is large body stature with increased height compared to peers. Muscles and organs may be enlarged as well. http://pituitary.ucla.edu/resources
Macroadenomas are large pituitary tumors. Large tumors can compress surrounding structures, primarily the normal pituitary gland and optic (visual) pathways, causing symptoms. The symptoms that result from the compression are independent of the effects of excess growth hormone secretion. Macroadenomas can cause:Vision loss and many vision problems. This occurs when macroadenomas grow upward into the brain cavity, compressing the optic chiasm.
http://radiopaedia.org/articles/pituitary-macroadenoma-1
The third eye sign of Polyphemus.
It is possible, that the pituitary tumor of the giant, had grown in large dimensions, caused him vision problems.Thats an explanation why the giant was blind, after Odysseus injured his so called “third eye”.
Tumor had invated or spread to bones arround the pituitary like the nasal bone or other structures of frontal bone, and look like a third eye.
http://www.cancer.org/cancer/pituitarytumors/detailedguide/pituitary-tumors-what-is-pituitary-tumor
2. Cyctic Encephalocele as a form of encephalocele near the nasal bone due to large dimmensions of the pituitary tumor.
14th INTERNATIONAL GONGRESS OF SPELEOLOGY 21 – 28 August, ATHENS – KALAMOS 2005 με τίτλο: Tha cave of Oliaros on Antiparos; a new view regarding the existence of the Cyclops Polyphemus there. A Medical Approach to Gigantism and the Demythologisation of the Blinding of the Cyclops by Odysseus by Chris. T. Oeconomopoulos MD and Alexandra Ch. Oeconomopoulou, M.D.
3.Encephaloceles can also occur near the sinuses, forehead and nose or near the base of the skull. This explanations is for encephalocele as a rare birth defect, not associated with pituitary tumor.But in this scenario, we can’t explain the gigantism.

more sources:
http://www.sd-neurosurgeon.com/neurodiseases-pituitary-tumor.php
http://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/encephalocele/
http://www.chw.org/medical-care/fetal-concerns-center/conditions/infant-complications/encephalocele/
http://dev14.hopkinsmedicine.org/neurology_neurosurgery/centers_clinics/brain_tumor/center/skull-base/types/encephaloceles.html

 

The Antikythera Mechanism:From science to Politics.
Predicting eclipses as a political tool.

“The Antikythera Mechanism is a unique Greek geared device, constructed around the end of the second century bc. It is known that it calculated and displayed celestial information, particularly cycles such as the phases of the moon and a luni-solar calendar. Calendars were important to ancient societies for timing agricultural activity and fixing religious festivals”.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v444/n7119/abs/nature05357.html
http://phys.org/news/2015-09-marine-archaeologists-excavate-greek-antikythera.html
In my opinion that is exactly the case. Predicting moon eclipses with this extraodinary ancient greek machine (produced maybe from Archimedes lab or Posidonius ), could have been a great war weapon and instrument of political plans. Knowing the exact time of astronomy cycles, the wise Roman senate (that ordered or seized the mechanism and transfered to Rome with a ship)could design a masterplan of political and military gradually submission of other nations, especially those with primitive religions and social superstitions due to the luck of science. Political alliances, millitary expensions, and battle dates could now be sceduled. The mechanism maybe was for the Romans, a great planning tool.
See what happened at The Battle of Pydna. Clearly, the Roman army was more than ready to use this eclipse for they benefit. Unfortunately there is no data about the reaction of the Greek army, that night.
“A veteran officer announced that that night there was going to be an eclipse and reassured the soldiers who were ignorant about this phenomenon and would have seen it as a portent. Livy The History of Rome, 44.35-22, 36, 37 -9 Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The life of Aemilius, 17.1-6”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Macedonian_War#The_Battle_of_Pydna
http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8657349
http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100356720
An exable of the effect of eclipses to ancient buttles see here:
http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/ask/a11846.html
http://www.britannica.com/biography/Poseidonius
http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEhistory/SEhistory.html
And another great exable is Alexander the Great and the battle of Greeks to Gaugamela:We read:
“Later, as Alexander addressed his men, he spoke of the forthcoming battle, reassuring the typically superstitious Macedonians that an earlier eclipse of the moon was a sign of victory”.
http://www.ancient.eu/Battle_of_Gaugamela/

The plague of Athens 430 BC. The death of Pericles and the end of Athens Democracy.
Differential diagnosis:
Typhus or Typhoid fever, Ebola virus, smallpox, scarlet fever,
Viral hemorrhagic fever, or Measles.

The plague of Athens in 430BC during the war: epidemiology and paleopathology. The death of Pericles.Typhus or typhoid fever , EBOLA virus or a smallpox, Scarlet fever or even Measles?
In 430 BC, a plague struck the city of Athens, which was then under siege by Sparta during the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC). In the next 3 years, most of the population was infected, and perhaps as many as 75,000 to 100,000 people, 25% of the city’s population, died. The Athenian general and historian Thucydides left an eye-witness account of this plague and a detailed description to allow future generations to identify the disease should it break out again. Because of the importance of Thucydides and Athens in Western history and culture, the Plague of Athens has taken a prominent position in the history of the West for the past 2500 years”.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19787658
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(09)60123-9/fulltext
“In January 1999, the University of Maryland devoted their fifth annual medical conference, dedicated to notorious case histories, to the Plague of Athens. They concluded that disease that killed the Greeks and their military and political leader, Pericles, was typhus”.
http://umm.edu/news-and-events/news-releases/1999/plague-of-athens-another-medical-mystery-solved-at-university-of-maryland
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ancient-athenian-plague-p/
http://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712%2805%2900178-5/fulltext
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2639821/
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1201971205001785
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16730469
http://archive.archaeology.org/online/news/kerameikos.html
http://academia.dk/MedHist/Sygdomme/PDF/TheCauseOfThePlagueOfAthens.pdf
EBOLA virus theory:
https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/did-ancient-athens-have-an-ebola-outbreak/2015/06/22/e01b7ee4-14fa-11e5-9518-f9e0a8959f32_story.html
http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/4/1/98-0127_article
Thypoid fever theory:
https://www.elsevier.com/about/press-releases/research-and-journals/typhoid-fever-led-to-the-fall-of-athens
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/02/0227_060227_athens_plague.html

 

Aeschylus wrote his theatrical plays or tragedies when he was drunk!?

That is the opinion of Athenaeus of Naucratis, in his work Deipnosophistae. Athenaeus of Naucratis was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD. The Suda says only that he lived in the times of Marcus Aurelius, but the contempt with which he speaks of Commodus, who died in 192, shows that he survived that emperor. He was a contemporary of Adrantus. Several of his publications are lost, but the fifteen volumes Deipnosophistae mostly survives.The Deipnosophistae, which means “dinner-table philosophers,” survives in fifteen books.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athenaeus

“Chamaeleon says that Aeschylus composed his tragedies when he was drunk. Indeed, Sophocles criticized him, saying that whenever he used the right words, he did so unwittingly.
μεθύων δὲ ἐποίει τὰς τραγῳδίας Αἰσχύλος, ὥς φησι
Χαμαιλέων. Σοφοκλῆς γοῦν ὠνείδιζεν
αὐτῷ ὅτι εἰ καὶ τὰ δέοντα ποιεῖ, ἀλλ’ οὐκ εἰδώς γε.
Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 1.39
https://sententiaeantiquae.com/2015/04/16/ancient-criticism-of-aeschylus/
There is a strange line connecting Aeschylus hero Prometheus, Aesop, drinking and homosexuality! The Roman fabulist Phaedrus (c.15BCE – c.50CE) attributes to Aesop a simple etiology for homosexuality, in Prometheus’ getting drunk while creating the first humans and misapplying the genitalia.[
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prometheus

Future projects:NEW!
In a few days we’ll be ready for printing our new stuff!

A.Prometheus unbound with new frame and 24K gold leafs.
B.Prometheus with plato’s and Aeschylus quotes.
C.Prometheus unbound with the declaration of human rights (A summary of the original text of UN 1948)
D.Prometheus unbound with Centaur Chiron. The Centaur found at Toumba cemetery (c.900 B.C.) Lefkadi) a coastal village on the island of Euboea, Greece.
http://lefkandi.classics.ox.ac.uk/Toumba.html

Cloudy with a chance of pain.Drawing patterns solving an ancient Hippocratic question.

The world’s first smartphone-based study to investigate the association between pain and the weather.
Dr Dixon from http://research.bmh.manchester.ac.uk/Musculoskeletal/research//CfE added: “People taking part in this study will be helping to answer a question that even the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates, couldn’t resolve, and which hasn’t been resolved since. That’s what epidemiology is all about – drawing patterns and inspiration from large groups of people to provide insights which we couldn’t otherwise achieve –this time with the help of their smartphones.”

http://www.manchester.ac.uk/discover/news/cloudy-with-a-chance-of-pain
http://www.srft.nhs.uk/
http://ocr.nyc/
http://www.herc.ac.uk/
http://www.arthritisresearchuk.org/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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